Tentang Indirect Speech

Indirect Speech adalah kalimat tak langsung, yaitu kalimat yang dikatakan olehh orang lain (mungkin di tempat dan waktu yang berbeda) berdasarkan apa yang dikatakan langsung oleh penutur pertama. “Indirect Speech” disebut juga reported speech atau quoted speech.
1.   Dalam indirect speech, “the past continuous tense” yang digunakan dengan when clause tidak mengalami perubahan.
2.     Dalam British English, penulisan tanda kutip menggunakan tanda kutip satu (‘  ‘), sedangkan dalam American English, penulisannya menggunakan tanda kutip dua (“  “).
3.     ‘should’ yang digunakan dengan I dan We (British) mempunyai arti akan bukan sebaliknya. ‘should’ berubah menjadi would dalam indirect speech.
Contoh:
a)      He said, ‘ I should be happy.’ à He said that he would be happy
b)      He said, ‘I shall be happy.’      à He said that he would be happy
4.    Untuk suatu pernyataan yang benar secara universal. Kita dapat menggunakan the simple present tense da dalam noun clause.
Contoh:
a)      He said that the sun rises in the east.
b)      He said that the sun rose in the east.
5.   Jika introductory verb atau kata kerja dalam klausa utama dalam bentuk the simple present, the present perfect atau the dimple future tense, maka dalam indirect speech tidak mengalami perubahan.
Contoh:
a)      He says that he is trying to work carefully.
b)      She has said that she will never be late again.

CONTOH:
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
1)      He said, ‘I work Hard.’
He said (that) he worked hard
2)      He said, ‘I am working hard.’
He said (that)he was working hard
3)      He said, ‘I will work hard.’
He said (that) He would work hard
4)      He said, ‘I was working hard.’
He said (that) he had been working hard
5)      He said, ‘I worked hard.’
He said (that) he had worked hard
6)      He said, ‘I have worked hard.’
He said (that) he had worked hard
7)      He said, ‘I am going to work hard.’
He said (that) he was going to work hard
8)      He said, ‘I can work hard.’
He said (that) he could work hard
9)      He said, ‘I may work hard.’
He said (that) he might work hard
10)   He said, ‘I might work hard.’
He said (that) he might work hard
11)   He said, ‘I must work hard.’
He said (that) he must/had to work hard
12)   He said, ‘I have to work hard.’
He said (that) he had to work hard
13)   He said, ‘work hard.’
He told me to work hard
14)   He said, ‘I should work hard.’
He said (that) he should work hard
15)   He said, ‘Don’t leave.’
He told me not to leave
16)   He said, ‘Will you come?’
He asked if (wheter or not) I would go.
17)   He asked, ‘where are you?’
He asked me where I was
18)   He said, ‘I was talking to my teacher when Ann called me.’
He said (that) he was talking to his teacher when Ann called him

Perhatikan perubahan kata keterangan waktu dan kata kerja di dalam Indirect Speech
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
Now (sekarang)
Then, at that moment (pada waktu itu)
Today (hari ini)
That thay (hari itu)
Yesterday (Kemarin)
The day before, the previous day (sehari sebelumnya)
Last night (semalam)
The night before, the previous night (semalam sebelumnya)
Last week (minggu lalu)
the week before, the previous week (seminggu sebelumnya)
Two days ago (dua hari lalu)
Two days before (dua hari sebelumnya)
A week ago (seminggu lalu)
a week before, the previous week (seminggu sebelumnya)
A month ago (sebulan lalu)
A month before, the previous month (sebulan sebelumnya)
A year ago (setahun lalu)
àa year before, the previous year (setahun sebelumnya)
Tomorrow (besok)
the following day, the next day (hari berikutnya)
Next week (minggu depan)
the following week (minggu berikutnya)
Next month (bulan depan)
the following month (bulan berikutnya)
Next year (tahun depan)
the following year (tahun berikutnya)
Next Monday (senin depan)
the following Monday (senin berikutnya)
Here (disini)
there (disana)
Over here (di sebelah sini)
over there (disebelah sana)
This (ini)
that (itu)
These (ini)
those (itu)

Cobalah mengerjakan latihan berikut ini.
·         Ubahlah Direct Speech di bawah ini menjadi Indirect Speech.
1.       ‘I am going home now, ‘Yusuf said ......
2.       ‘What do you want?’ Linda asked me ......
3.       ‘Have you seen him lately?’ his mother wanted to know ......
4.       ‘What have you done?’ he asked me ......
5.       ‘I am late, ‘Ana said ......
6.       ‘Can you stay to have dinner with us?’ I asked him ......
7.       ‘May I borrow your pen?’Wati asked ......
8.       ‘I am leaving, ‘he told us ......
9.       ‘He must go home now, ‘she said ......
10.   ‘I can’t do it by myself, ‘Alex told us ......

2 comments:

  1. very informatif, thanks

    ReplyDelete
  2. 1. yusuf said that he was going home at that moment.
    2. linda asked me what i wanted.
    3.
    4. he asked me what had i done.
    5. ana said that she was late.
    6. i asked him whether he can stay have dinner with us.
    7. wati asked me may she borrowed my pen \.
    8. he told us that he was leaving.
    9. he said him to must go home at that moment.
    10. alex told ua that he couldn't do it by himself.

    ReplyDelete